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Best articles about oldest civilizations

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23
Nov

The Overview of Civilizations of Ancient Mesoamerica

Posted in Uncategorized  by antiques

the-overview-of-civilizations-of-ancient-mesoamericaThe term, Aztec, is a startlingly imprecise term to describe the culture that dominated the Valley of Mexico in the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries.

Properly speaking, all the Nahua-speaking peoples in the Valley of Mexico were Aztecs, while the culture that dominated the area was a tribe of the Mexica (pronounced “me-shee-ka”) called the Tenochca (”te-noch-ka”).

At the time of the European conquest, they called themselves either “Tenochca” or “Toltec,” which was the name assumed by the bearers of the Classic Mesoamerican culture.

The earliest we know about the Mexica is that they migrated from the north into the Valley of Mexico as early as the twelfth century AD, well after the close of the Classic Period in Mesoamerica. Read the rest of this entry »

23
Nov

The Mesoamerican Civilization - Part II

Posted in Uncategorized  by antiques

the-mesoamerican-civilization-part-iiThe Toltecs: 10th - 12th century

At some time after the collapse of Teotihuacan in the 7th century, migrants from the north move into the valley of Mexico. They are the Toltecs, who by the middle of the 10th century are dominating the region from a capital city at Tula. In an otherwise traditional complex of pyramid temples in the Mesoamerican style, Tula introduces one new element - the vast stone statues of warriors surmounting the main pyramid. Read the rest of this entry »

23
Nov

The Mesoamerican Civilization - Part I

Posted in Uncategorized  by antiques

the-mesoamerican-civilization-part-iSan Lorenzo and La Venta: 1200 - 400 BC

The first civilization in central and north America develops in about 1200 BC in the coastal regions of the southern part of the Gulf of Mexico. Known as the Olmec civilization, its early site is at San Lorenzo.

From about 900 BC the capital city of the Olmecs moves further east along the Gulf coast to La Venta, an island site in the Tonalá River. For the next 500 years La Venta is the cultural centre of a large region, trading with much of central America.

The Olmec traditions of sculpture and of temple architecture, developed over eight centuries, will influence all the subsequent civilizations of the region. Read the rest of this entry »

23
Nov

The History of Africa - from CE 200

Posted in Uncategorized  by antiques

the-history-of-africa-from-ce-200The Soninke of Ancient Ghana, circa CE 200

A thousand miles west of the Bantu community, just inland from the western coast and just south of the Saharan desert, an iron using state arose called Ghana — unrelated to modern Ghana. Its people were the Soninke, who might have grouped together into a state for strength against their exposure to attacks from Berber nomads to their north. With iron tools, their hunting efficiency had increased, and farmers there were able to form larger settlements.

They were illiterate, but they had horses they had obtained from Saharan nomads, and they had iron swords and lances, and they seized farming and grazing land from their weaker, less organized neighbors. From about CE 200, Ghana grew as a trading power. The importation of camels to the Sahara boosted trade, and the demand for gold increased. The Soninke were midway between the source of salt in the Sahara and gold fields to their south along the Upper Senegal River, and the Soninke of Ghana acted as middlemen, passing salt to the gold producers and gold to the north. Read the rest of this entry »

23
Nov

The History of Africa - Starting with the Nubians

Posted in Uncategorized  by antiques

the-history-of-africa-starting-with-the-nubiansThe Nubians to 500 BCE

In 730 BCE, the Nubians again invaded northern Egypt, and the Nubian king, Piankhi, moved his capital to Memphis and started Egypt’s 25th dynasty. An Egyptianization of Nubian culture had begun, including the use of Egyptian writing. Egyptian became the official language of Nubian government, and gods among the Nubians acquired Egyptian names. Read the rest of this entry »

2
Nov

Mayan Gods - Goddess Ix Chel

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mayan-goddess-of-the-moonMayan Goddess of the Moon

As an ancient fertility goddess, Ix-Chel was responsible for sending rain to nourish the crops. When fulfilling that function she was called “Lady Rainbow”. She helped insure fertility by overturning her sacred womb jar so that the waters would flow.

Though sometimes depicted as a goddess of catastrophe (the woman who stands by as the world floods), many of her myths show her in a more benevolent light—as a goddess who refused to become a victim of oppression.

This was a woman who, when faced with adversity, took charge of her life and turned it around! Read the rest of this entry »

2
Nov

Mayan Gods - Kinich Ahau

Posted in Uncategorized  by antiques

mayan-gods-kinich-ahauKinich Ahau (K’inich Ahaw) ‘Sun-eyed Lord’ is the 16th-century Yucatec name of the Maya sun god, designated as god G in the Schellhas-Zimmermann-Taube classification. The element k’inich, usually assumed to mean ’sun-eyed’, appears to have been in general use as a royal title during the Classic Period.

In the Classic period, god G is depicted as a middle-aged man with an aquiline nose, large square eyes, cross-eyed, and a filed incisor in the upper row of teeth. Usually, there is a k’in ’sun’-infix, sometimes in the very eyes. Among the southern Lacandons, Kinich Ahau continued to play a role in narrative well into the second half of the twentieth century. Read the rest of this entry »

2
Nov

Mayan Gods - Ah Puch

Posted in Uncategorized  by antiques

mayan-gods-ah-puchOVERVIEW

The Mayan Death God, Ah Puch possessed the body of mortal Daniel Gleason and menaced the Phantom Stranger.

HISTORY

Ah Puch was the Mayan god of death and ruler of Mitnal, the most abysmal of the nine Mayan hells. He thrived on human sacrifice, and was especially revered in the city of Chichen Itza, where people were thrown into the Cenote, a sacred well, as sacrifices for Ah Puch to feast upon.

With the advent of Christianity, worship of Ah Puch died out. This rendered Ah Puch so weak that he turned into a discorporeal spirit and was forced into dormancy. Read the rest of this entry »

26
Oct

Historical Overview of Lake Titicaca

Posted in Uncategorized  by antiques

historical-overview-of-lake-titicacaWhen you first glimpse Lake Titicaca’s crystalline, gemlike waters, beneath the looming backdrop of the Cordillera Real in the clear Altiplano light, you’ll understand why pre-Inca people connected it with mystical events. Those early inhabitants of the Altiplano believed that both the sun itself and their bearded, white god-king, Viracocha, had risen out of its mysterious depths. The Incas, in turn, believed that it was the birthplace of their civilization.

When the Spanish arrived in the mid-16th century, legends of treasure began to surface, including the tale that some Incas had flung their gold into the lake to prevent the Spanish carting it off. Read the rest of this entry »

26
Oct

History of Tiahuanaco and the Deluge - Part II

Posted in Uncategorized  by antiques

history-of-tiahuanaco-and-the-deluge-e28093-part-iiAs Boero Rojo stated, “the discovery of Aymara structures under the waters of Lake Titicaca could pose entirely new theses on the disappearance of an entire civilization, which, for some unknown reason, became submerged. The Tiahuanacans could have been victims of world-wide flood, their civilization all but wiped out when their homes and structures were covered with sea water. Because of the basin-like geography of the area the flood waters that became Lake Titicaca could not run off and have only gradually evaporated over the centuries.

Professor Schindler-Bellamy as a disciple of Posnansky and Horbiger (who created the world famous (Glacial-Cosmogony theory in the 1930’s) has worked dozens of years in the Tiahuanaco area and has written books on the subject.

According to him the large monolithic Sun Gate of Tiahuanaco was evidently originally the centerpiece of the most important part of the so-called Kalasasaya, the huge chief temple of Tiahuanaco. Read the rest of this entry »