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The History and Culture of Alexandria

Posted in Antique Egypt  by antiques

alexandria-anciet-drawingAlexandria is the shining pearl of the Mediterranean, and the beacon radiating its culture and heritage to the world at large. It is the second largest city and the main port of Egypt, History of Alexandria tells us that Alexandria was founded by the Macedonian leader Alexander the Great in 332 BC. Alexandria. It was built by the Greek architect Dinocrates (332-331 BC) on the site of an old village, Rhakotis, at the orders of Alexander the Great. History of Alexandria can be divided into several epochs.

Alexandria during the Ptolemies

Alexandria was the renowned capital of the Ptolemies, with numerous monuments. History of Alexandria took a tragic turn at the time of Cleopatra, Julius Caesar, Mark Antony, and Octavian.

In a struggle with the other successors to Alexander, his general, Ptolemy (later Ptolemy I of Egypt) succeeded in bringing Alexander’s body to Alexandria, where it became a famous tourist destination for ancient travelers (including Julius Caesar).As the seat of the Ptolemaic rulers of Egypt, the city of Alexandria became one of the greatest cities of the Hellenistic world only second to Rome in size and wealth. One of the earliest well-known inhabitants of Alexandria during the Ptolemaic reign was the geometer and number-theorist Euclid.

Roman reign in Alexandria

History of Alexandria states that the city passed formally under Roman jurisdiction in 80 BC. Julius Caesar dallied with Cleopatra in Alexandria in 47 BC, saw Alexander’s body and was mobbed by the rabble. From the time of annexation onwards, Alexandria seems to have regained its old prosperity, commanding an important granary of Rome. This fact led Augustus to place it directly under imperial power. Even as its main historical importance had formerly sprung from pagan learning, Alexandria acquired fresh importance as a centre of Christian theology and church government.

Post-Roman history of Alexandria

In 616, Alexandria was taken by Khosrau II, King of Persia. In 641 the Arabs captured it decisively after a siege that lasted fourteen months. During this age, Alexandria faced a lot of destruction. The library and its contents were destroyed in 642 during the war. The Lighthouse was destroyed by earthquakes in the 14th century, and by 1700 the city was just a small town among the ruins. Later Mohammed Ali, the Turkish Governor of Egypt, began rebuilding the city around 1810, and by 1850 and Alexandria got back its former glory. In July 1954, the city was a target of an Israeli firebomb campaign.

In spite of the disastrous history of Alexandria, the city, immortalizing Alexander’s name, quickly flourished into a prominent cultural, intellectual, political, and economic metropolis, the remains of which are still evident to this day. - Inspired by

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